Animation began almost 2,000 years ago star projector having a device known as the Zoetrope. Now, fans can take advantage of animation in hand drawn, CGI preventing motion formats. From the early days to new leading edge technology, here’s the reputation the genre.
Several countries around the world have contributed to the theory and invention of animation.
Zoetrope: the initial Zoetrope in 180 AD, introduced by Ting Huan, from China, was an illusion that, when spun, made the photographs appear as though they were moving; the current Zoetrope was founded by William George Harner from Britain in 1834 (see photo).
Magic lantern: Thaumatrope, 1824.
Flip book: patented by John Barns Linnet in 1868.
Mutoscope: in 1894.
Praxinescope: France 1877, introduced by Charles-Emile Reynaud who made earth’s first animated film which screened in Paris, France on October 28, 1892 regarding his prototype of the current projector he known as the Théâtre Optique system (invented in 1889).
However, could these early projectors, the initial animation with the world goes back to 5000 years ago, seen in present-day Iran (Persia), an animated earthen goblet, depicting a goat jumping with a tree you can eat the leaves. Also, animation has been depicted in cave drawings.
Animation is divided into three categories: traditional animation (includes cel-animation), stop motion (includes claymation), and CGI (computer generated imagery). Even today, because it was often carried out earlier times, any one of them could possibly be congruently combined and even used with live-action, e.g. ‘Who Framed Roger Rabbit’? (1988).
Traditional animation was at one time the most popular kind of animation, dating back to the early usage of animation in films. Traditional, or classical animation because it’s also known as, originally contained hand-drawn images on each, single frame, including the background. Later, using the invention of cel-animation, founded by Earl Hurd in 1914 (while employed at John Bray Studio), animation would progress even further.
Cel-animation was obviously a technique found in that the animated ink drawings were inked directly onto clear components of celluloid, each frame individually. Then, every bit of celluloid, individually, was put on a single painted background and then photographed consecutively. Since this saved plenty of time, since the background did not have to be used for every frame, other animation studios began copying this system. Today, traditional animation is done digitally over a computer, with ‘digital ink’.
*Even though Earl Hurd, in 1914, invented the cel-animation technique, unfortunately, it was John Bray Studio who received the credit for this innovative method. It was misfortunate that the early animation studios didn’t credit their artists and just considered fame and monetary gains for their own reasons.
Otto Messmer, ‘Felix the Cat’ creator, when utilised by the Pat Sullivan Studio, experienced exactly the same unfairness as Hurd. Not once in their entire life did he receive recognition and even monetary gain (Pat Sullivan made millions from Messmer’s creation). This also happened with the Walt Disney Studios; except Disney is claimed to get acknowledged his artists; however, Disney, like Pat Sullivan, received millions from his artists’ creations. For instance, it was Freddie Moore (Robert Fred Moore) who should have received the population attention (while he was alive) for his innovative style towards realistic motion; this exceeded at night ‘rubber hose’ style with the day.
In stop motion animation, or stop-action, a thing is slightly moved (object animation), then photographed, one frame at the same time. Clay animation (or ‘Claymation’ registered trademarked (1978) by Will Vinton) and pixilation, both initially first found in 1908. The U.S. clay animated film, produced by The Edison Manufacturing Co. (later generally known as Thomas A. Edison, Inc.) called ‘The Sculptor’s Welsh Rarebit Dream’ (1908) is the initial known clay animation. ‘El hotel eléctrico’ (The Electric Hotel) (1908), a Spanish film produced by Segundo de Chomón, is an early example with the usage of pixilation.
There is also another variations of stop motion techniques: go motion, stereoscopic, and CGI stop motion.
Go motion was found in 1980 in ‘Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back’ and was developed as a way to provide a more realistic movement towards the object(s) within the frame. Since each object, when shot using stop motion, is crisp clear focus within each frame (which doesn’t realistically represent movement towards the human eye), go motion provided the mandatory effect to generate a subject’s movement more life-like by creating motion blur. When shooting go motion, the niche, while being recorded, is moved. This creates motion blur. Although there have become multiple ways to generate a subject move while it’s being recorded, one way is by using rods to manipulate the object.
Stereoscopic (‘two’ images) animation is the term for 3-D animation. One way to create 3-D images with object animation is by the usage of a binary lens system (aka point-and-shoot stereo cameras), a single camera designed with two lens. Another way to produce 3-D images is using the usage of a computer and CGI software programs.
CGI animation is often a mix of computer generated imagery with animation techniques, and because with the advancements of computer technology and software, is becoming the most well-liked style of animation. The difference between CGI as well as other types of animations is it is all totally manipulated having a computer, one frame at the same time. Each frame, after manipulation, have to be rendered, and because of this, an easy computer is essential.
CGI initially started in the early seventies using the advancement of computer technology and software. However, it had not been until recently, using the usage of motion capture that CGI characters have become an increasing number of realistic.
You don’t have to get a fancy computer and plenty of training to begin in animation. Learn to build your own stop motion movie.
“Film History.” Kristen Thompson, David Bordwell. 2003.
Image in “Beginning with the Art” from Wikimedia Commons